Business Finance & Mortgage Jargon Buster
This test measures a company’s ability to pay its short-term debts. It looks at current assets (although not inventory/stock), which are items that can quickly be converted into cash. Also referred to as the Quick Ratio.
This refers to a legal procedure that is designed to rescue insolvent companies, allowing them to continue running their business while being operated by an administrator.
This is a fixed amount of money paid to an individual each year. An example of this would be a contract sold by an insurance company, which provides payments to the holder at specified intervals, usually as a way of ensuring a steady cash flow during retirement.
Annual Equivalent Rate (AER)
The AER refers to the official interest rate for savings accounts, and allows you to compare products easily. It shows what you would get over a year if you put money into your account and left it there. The ‘gross rate’ is the interest actually paid.
Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
This refers to the overall cost of debt, i.e. the cost of the borrowing together with any associated fees, such as an arrangement fee. This varies between lenders.
The term was originally created by the banks. Although it’s widely recognised, Capify is unable to use it and that’s simply because our finance isn’t offered over an annual period. Instead, we charge a factor rate; a term exclusively used in business finance rather than commercial finance. The factor rate we offer is based on your individual business circumstances.
Approval in Principle
Following some basic financial checks, a lender will make a temporary offer of a mortgage loan so you know how much you can afford to borrow when looking at properties. This is subject to a successful, full application later on.
So you can compare financial products like-for-like, an APR offers an annualised percentage that is standardised and shows you the true cost of borrowing.
If a borrower fails to meet their contractual mortgage payment in full then the account will fall into arrears by the amount due that has not been paid.
The price the vendor states when starting negotiations for the sale of their property.
Anything owned by the company which has a monetary value; e.g., ‘fixed’ assets like buildings, plant and machinery, vehicles (these are not assets if rented and not owned) and potentially including intangibles like trademarks and brand names, and ‘current’ assets, such as stock, debtors, and cash.
A measure of operational efficiency – shows how much revenue is produced per £ of assets available to the business. If a company generates a high number of sales from its assets, then it has low asset turnover.
(Formerly Bankers’ Automated Clearing Services) This is the system allowing you to pay your bills and transfer money electronically, for example, direct debits.
This is the amount of money you have in your bank account at a given time, or alternatively, the amount you owe on your credit card. The bank or card provider will send you statements at regular intervals showing your current balance, or you can access this information if you have an online banking facility.
The Balance Sheet is one of the three essential measurement reports for the performance and health of a company, along with the Profit and Loss Account and the Cashflow Statement.
The Balance Sheet is a ‘snapshot’ in time of a company’s financial position. It shows what a company owns, and what they owe out. The three main elements of a balance sheet include Assets, Liabilities, and Owner’s/Shareholders Equity.
The equation is Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity.
For every change on one side of the balance sheet, there must be a corresponding change on the other side – it must always balance, hence the name.
Lenders use this rate, set by the Bank of England, as a basis for setting some tracker rates, usually by adding a few percent on top.
In a financial planning context, the word budget means an amount of money that is planned to spend on a particular activity or resource. This is typically over a trading year, although budgets apply to shorter and longer periods, and may refer to costs allocated to projects of flexible timescales.
A mortgage product for people who would like to invest in residential property to let out as a rental.
A business loan is a loan specifically intended for business purposes. As with all loans, it involves the creation of a debt, which will be repaid with added interest.
Capify offers small business loans, which are designed to provide much-needed working capital. Business loan customers repay on a little and often basis, usually daily or weekly to help with cash flow management. They don’t have to worry about a large monthly repayment on a fixed date each month.
Capify loans are available from £5,000 to over £500,000.
The value of all resources available to the company, typically including share capital, retained profits and reserves, long-term loans, and deferred taxation.
Capital employed comprises fixed assets, investments, and the net investment in working capital (current assets less current liabilities). In other words: the total long-term funds invested in or lent to the business and used by it to carry out operations.
You may be offered a lump sum as part of your mortgage product, providing you with ‘cash’ to cover additional costs, such as decorating. This is typically paid upon completion of your mortgage.
The movement of cash in and out of a business from day-to-day direct trading and other non-trading or indirect effects, such as capital expenditure, tax, and dividend payments.
Cash Flow Statement
The cash flow statement shows the movement and availability of cash through and to the business over a given period, certainly for a trading year, and often also monthly and cumulatively.
The availability of cash in a company is necessary to meet payments to suppliers, staff, and other creditors, it’s essential for any business to survive. Therefore, reliable forecasting and reporting of cash movement and availability are crucial.
This stands for Clearing House Automated Payment System and is the automated system that you can use to make a same-day payment within the UK. There is normally a charge for using this service, so it is primarily used for high-value payments.
This is when you earn additional interest on interest. Referring to savings, this means that any interest you earn is added to your original deposit, and then this larger amount continues to earn you even more interest. If referring to a loan, it means you will be charged interest, not only on the amount borrowed but also on any interest outstanding at that point in time.
When a solicitor or licenced conveyancer handles a range of legal paperwork as part of your mortgage application, such as transfer of property deeds.
Cost of debt ratio
Despite the different variations used for this term (cost of debt, cost of debt ratio, average cost of debt ratio, etc) the term normally and simply refers to the interest expense over a given period as a percentage of the average outstanding debt over the same period, i.e., cost of interest divided by average outstanding debt.
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)
The directly attributable costs of products or services sold, (usually materials, labour, and direct production costs). Sales less COGS = gross profit. Effectively the same as cost of sales (COS) see below for fuller explanation.
Cost of sales (COS)
Commonly arrived at via the formula: opening stock + stock purchased – closing stock.
Cost of sales is the value, at cost, of the goods or services sold during the period in question, usually the financial year, as shown in a Profit and Loss Account (P&L).
County Court Judgement
This is a legal decision handed down by county courts for debts to be repaid in England and Wales. Judgments are made available to credit reference agencies to help them assess credit-worthiness of individuals.
This term can be used in different ways. It can refer to money being paid into your account, or if your account is ‘in credit’, that the balance in your account is positive rather than negative. It can also refer to a contractual agreement in which you as the borrower receive money to pay for goods or services now and agree to repay the lender at a later date.
In order to get a clear picture of how you have managed your finances in the past, a lender will determine your credit rating by accessing information held at one or more Credit Reference Agencies. This is used, along with existing personal data held by the lender (for existing customers) and information from your application, to determine your credit rating against the lender’s own, internal credit assessment systems and influences their decision to grant the mortgage.
Client Relationship Manager.
Cash and anything that is expected to be converted into cash within twelve months of the balance sheet date.
The relationship between current assets and current liabilities indicates the liquidity of a business, i.e. its ability to meet its short-term obligations. Also referred to as the Liquidity Ratio.
Money owed by the business that is generally due for payment within 12 months of the balance sheet date. Examples: creditors, bank overdraft, taxation.
Customer Due Diligence (CDD)
This refers to the steps a financial services business is required to carry out, in order to identify and verify the identity of the parties to a relationship, and to obtain information on the purpose and intended nature of each business relationship.
Failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, usually from missed payments.
The distribution of the cost of a (usually large) capital item over an agreed period, (based on life expectancy or obsolescence), for example, a piece of equipment costing £10k having a life of five years might be depreciated over five years at a cost of £2k per year.
A dividend is a payment made per share, to a company’s shareholders by a company, based on the profits of the year, but not necessarily all of the profits, arrived at by the directors and voted at the company’s annual general meeting.
A company can choose to pay a dividend from reserves following a loss-making year, and conversely, a company can choose to pay no dividend after a profit-making year, depending on what is believed to be in the best interests of the company.
Early repayment charge (ERC)
Certain mortgage products have an initial period during which a lender will agree to fix or provide a discounted interest rate. Your lender will usually charge you an Early Repayment Charge if you decide to pay off your loan before that period has finished. This may also be charged if a lump sum over a pre-agreed percentage of the loan is paid off during the initial period.
Earnings Before Taxes
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
Earnings Before Interest After Taxes
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, and Depreciation
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization.
The equity amount in your property is calculated as your home’s value, less the amount you owe your lender for your mortgage loan.
European Union Savings Directive (EUSD)
This has been in force in the UK since 1 July 2005, and its aim is to allow the Member States of the European Union and certain other countries to collect and exchange information about payments of savings income in the form of interest.
Financial Conduct Authority (formerly FSA – Financial Services Authority).
Assets used by the business rather than for sale or conversion into cash, e.g., fixtures and fittings, equipment, buildings.
A cost that does not vary with changing sales or production volumes, e.g., building lease costs, permanent staff wages, rates, depreciation of capital items.
Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS)
This is UK’s deposit compensation scheme, which can pay compensation to consumers if a financial services firm is unable, or is likely to be unable, to pay claims against it.
This is where the interest rate and payment remain the same for the length of time you have a financial product, for example, a mortgage or a loan. This will be agreed upon prior to signing up for the product.
This is a deposit that is held at a financial institution for an agreed fixed term, ranging anywhere from say a month to several years. Because the term is fixed, you will only be able to withdraw your money after the term has ended, or by giving an agreed period of notice. Your bank may allow you to withdraw your money early, but each bank’s requirements will be different in this regard, and you are likely to incur a fee or penalty for doing so.
Forex / FX
This describes where you own not only the building but the land upon which it stands
The ratio of debt to equity, usually the relationship between long-term borrowings and shareholders’ funds.
Sales less cost of goods or services sold. Also referred to as gross profit margin, or gross profit, and often abbreviated to simply ‘margin’. See also ‘net profit’.
This is a person who guarantees to pay off another individual’s debt, should the borrower find that they cannot pay it.
Help to buy
The Government is supporting home ownership by helping people to become homeowners where it is affordable over the long term.
HM Revenue and Customs – the UK’s tax authority.
Home Buy Schemes
Government-led schemes, such as Help to Buy, aim to help people who have smaller deposits to buy their own home – through equity loans or mortgage guarantees, for instance.
International Bank Account Number.
This stands for ‘Independent Financial Adviser’.
Initial public offering (IPO)
An Initial Public Offering is the first sale of privately-owned equity (stock or shares) in a company via the issue of shares to the public and other investing institutions. In other words, an IPO is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public.
If you are saving money, this refers to the amount earned from the bank on your deposit. If you are borrowing money, this refers to the fee charged by the lender for the use of the money.
This is the percentage that is paid to you by the bank in interest on savings or the percentage you pay if you have taken out a loan. Unlike banks, Capify charges a fixed fee, which means no matter how much interest rates increase by, they never charge customers extra money on top of their contract.
International Money Order (IMO)
This is a written order for the payment of a sum of money to a named individual, which is usually issued and payable at a bank or post office.
This stands for ‘Individual Savings Account’. These are available to UK residents only and are a form of tax-free savings account.
This is an account that you can open in the name of more than one person; usually a close relative or business partner. You will be asked to agree when opening the account whether each person is to be able to withdraw funds independently, or if they will require the consent of the other before doing so.
Know your customer (KYC)
This is the process by which a financial services business will verify the identity of its clients.
A scenario often seen with flats in England and Wales, where you own the property but not the land it stands on. Instead, you purchase a leasehold, for a long period of time.
Letters of Credit
These letters are used mainly by exporters and importers. Usually, the importing companies’ bank will send a letter to the exporter’s bank in order to safeguard the contract. Typically, the letter will state that the seller will receive their money on time and for the correct amount.
A letter of credit is a guarantee from the issuing bank to the seller that if compliant documents are presented by the seller to the buyer’s bank, then the buyer’s bank will pay the seller the amount due.
Letters of Guarantee
While a letter of credit essentially guarantees payment to the exporter, a letter of guarantee provides a safeguard that other aspects of the supplier’s or customer’s obligations will be met.
The supplier’s or customer’s bank is effectively giving a direct guarantee on behalf of the supplier or customer that the supplier’s or customer’s obligations will be met, and in the event of the supplier’s or customer’s failure to meet obligations to the other party then the bank undertakes the responsibility for those obligations.
A general term for what the business owes. It’s usually an obligation between one person/business to another, to say that an amount of money is to be paid. There’s a short term/current liabilities (will be paid within 12 months) and long term liabilities (will be paid back in more than 12 months).
This is when a company is brought to an end, either on a compulsory or voluntary basis.
Indicates the company’s ability to pay its short-term debts, by measuring the relationship between current assets (i.e. those which can be turned into cash) against the short-term debt value. (current assets/current liabilities) Also referred to as the Current Ratio.
A sum of money which is borrowed for a set period of time, and which is paid back to the lender, together with an agreed amount of interest.
Loan to value (LTV)
Describes the percentage rate to show the ratio between the value of a loan compared to the value of the property. Interest rates will typically vary by the LTV at the point of application.
Merchant Cash Advance
A Merchant Cash Advance (or MCA), sometimes called a Business Cash Advance, is a short-term funding option that works with the seasonal flow of your business. It’s a fantastic option for businesses that accept credit and debit card payments from their customers.
Capify’s Merchant Cash Advance allows businesses to raise upwards of £3,500, with the daily repayments designed to not impact cash flow, making it a flexible finance option.
Mortgage Payment Protection Insurance
An insurance product designed to cover your mortgage payments should you be unable to pay due to unemployment, accident or illness
When the value of your mortgage loan exceeds your property’s value.
Net Assets (also called total net assets)
Total assets (fixed and current) less current liabilities and long-term liabilities that have not been capitalised (e.g., short-term loans).
Net Current Assets
Current Assets less Current Liabilities.
Net present value (NPV)
NPV is essentially a measurement of all future cashflow (revenues minus costs, also referred to as net benefits) that will be derived from a particular investment (whether in the form of a project.
Net profit normally refers to profit after deduction of all operating expenses, notably after deduction of fixed costs or fixed overheads. Net profit normally refers to the profit figure before deduction of corporation tax, in which case the term is often extended to ‘net profit before tax’ or PBT.
A mortgage product that links to savings or current accounts you have with the same lender, allowing you to reduce the amount of your loan that you pay interest on by the amount you have in your other accounts (by ‘offsetting’ the balances).
An expense that cannot be attributed to any one single part of the company’s activities.
A product which can be moved to a new property if you move is ‘portable’. If your new home is more valuable, you can make up the difference with a separate loan.
A fee charged to the borrower by the lender for arranging your mortgage product.
Same as the Acid Test. The relationship between current assets (stock isn’t included) readily convertible into cash and current liabilities. A sterner test of liquidity.
Your buildings insurer needs to know how much it would cost to rebuild your property from the ground up should the worst happen, so it can calculate your premium.
A new mortgage application for your existing property, with the same or a new lender.
This is a process under which an application may be made to the Royal Court for a declaration of insolvency. The process has the potential for the debtor eventually to be discharged from his liabilities after the realisation and distribution of his assets.
Reserves are usually taken from a business’s profits and set aside for many different purposes; sometimes emergencies, but also to pay for bonuses, repairs, and maintenance, new assets, etc.
These are funds used by an organisation that are restricted or earmarked by a donor for a specific purpose, which can be extremely specific or quite broad, e.g., endowment or pensions investment; research (in the case of donations to a charity or research organisation); or a particular project with agreed terms of reference and outputs such as to meet the criteria or terms of the donation or award or grant.
Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
A fundamental financial performance measure. A percentage figure representing profit before interest against the money that is invested in the business. (profit before interest and tax, divided by capital employed, x 100 to produce percentage figure).
Return on investment (ROI)
Return on investment is a measurement that will show the amount gained or lost on an investment, in comparison to the amount which was invested. This can be used as a fundamental financial and business performance measure.
As part of your mortgage application, your solicitor will check with organisations such as local authorities for any information which impacts your property – planning proposals are an example.
Borrowers may be able to share a mortgage with another party, such as a housing association, then pay rent to the association to cover its share of the mortgage.
In contrast to compound interest, simple interest is interest paid on the original deposit only.
This is the money that is paid into the company by shareholders. In return for their investment, they’ll receive a share of the business.
Shareholders’ funds refer to the amount of equity in a company that is owned by the shareholders.
A tax you must pay to the Government if you buy a property valued at more than a certain amount. The tax rate increases as the property value increases.
The period during which you agree to pay back your mortgage.
A mortgage product with a shifting interest rate that ‘moves’, typically in line with the Bank of England’s base rate or the lender’s SVR, so it can go up as well as down.
Your lender will commission a surveyor firm to produce this report to ensure the property has been correctly valued before offering you a mortgage. This is used to assess the correct LTV, required to provide the correct mortgage product(s) available and assist with the assessment of the mortgage application.
A cost that varies with sales or operational volumes, e.g. materials, fuel, commission payments.
This is where the interest rates and therefore payments on deposits or loans, such as mortgages, change as a result of external factors, for example, a change in the base rate set by the Bank of England.
Working capital is the difference between current assets (cash, purchased stock) compared to current liabilities (the money owed out). This gives a short term indicator of the financial health of a business. To thrive and grow, a business should have significant working capital. This means that the amount owned is more than the amount owed.
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